The dating of the quran
In so far as it is consistent it gives a rough idea of the chronology of the quran Qurn; and any modern attempt to find a basis for dating must by and large be in agreement with the traditional views, even if in one or two points it contradicts them.European attempts to work out the chronological order of the suras have usually taken internal evidence into account as well, that is, apparent references to known public events, especially during the Medinan period of muhammad Muammad's career.In the Second Meccan Period there is a transition from the sublime enthusiasm of the first period to the greater calmness of the third.The fundamental teaching is supported and explained by numerous illustrations from nature and history.The prophetic stories are frequently repeated with slight variations of emphasis.The suras of this period are: 32, 41, 45, 16, 30, 11, 14, 12, 40, 28, 39, 29, 31, 42, 10, 34, 35, 7, 46, 6, 13.Several nineteenth-century scholars made useful contributions to the study of quranic Qurnic chronology; but the most important book by far was Theodor Nldeke's Geschichte des quran qorans Qorns, first published in 1860.1 A second edition, revised and enlarged by Friedrich Schwally and others, appeared in three volumes in 1909, 19, and was reprinted by a photocopying process in 1961.
Again, many of the 'occasions' are incidents, unimportant in themselves, whose precise date is unknown.
The suras of the First Meccan Period are mostly short.
The verses also are short, and the language rhythmic and full of imagery.
Sura 96 begins with 'recite', and this is appropriate for a book which is called 'the recitation' or quran Qurn; and sura 74 after addressing muhammad Muammad has the words 'rise and warn'-an appropriate beginning to the work of a messenger or warner.
Despite these deficiencies the traditional dating of passages by Muslim scholars is by no means valueless, and indeed forms the basis of all future work.
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The chief basis for the dating of passages and verses in the eyes of Muslim scholars consists of Traditions about muhammad Muammad and statements by later students of the quran Qurn.